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Profile Byron Leigh Hatch @ team Carl Sagan
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Message 27814 - Posted: 9 Nov 2010 | 17:52:45 UTC



Best Wishes
to all the staff and crunchers here at Prime Grid
Byron

the following news looks interesting :)

What will the next twenty (20) years bring in the way Computing power ?



Quantum Computing Reaches for True Power



QUIBIT CHIP Four quibits are symmetrically coupled via a capacitive island, the cross in the center.
By JOHN MARKOFF
Published: November 8, 2010
New York Times


  • IBM has begun a five-year research project based on advances made in the past year at Yale University and the University of California, Santa Barbara that suggest the possibility of quantum computing based on standard microelectronics manufacturing technologies.

  • Researchers at Toshiba Research Europe and Cambridge University reported in Nature that they had fabricated light-emitting diodes coupled with a custom-formed quantum dot, which functioned as a light source for entangled photons.

  • Google has received a proposal from D-Wave and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop a quantum computing facility for Google next year based on D-Wave technology.


In 1981 the physicist Richard Feynman speculated about the possibility of “tiny computers obeying quantum mechanical laws.” He suggested that such a quantum computer might be the best way to simulate real-world quantum systems, a challenge that today is largely beyond the calculating power of even the fastest supercomputers.

Since then there has been sporadic progress in building this kind of computer. The experiments to date, however, have largely yielded only systems that seek to demonstrate that the principle is sound. They offer a tantalizing peek at the possibility of future supercomputing power, but only the slimmest results.

Recent progress, however, has renewed enthusiasm for finding avenues to build significantly more powerful quantum computers. Laboratory efforts in the United States and in Europe are under way using a number of technologies.

Significantly, I.B.M. has reconstituted what had recently been a relatively low-level research effort in quantum computing. I.B.M. is responding to advances made in the past year at Yale University and the University of California, Santa Barbara, that suggest the possibility of quantum computing based on standard microelectronics manufacturing technologies. Both groups layer a superconducting material, either rhenium or niobium, on a semiconductor surface, which when cooled to near absolute zero exhibits quantum behavior.

The company has assembled a large research group at its Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., that includes alumni from the Santa Barbara and Yale laboratories and has now begun a five-year research project.

“I.B.M. is quite interested in taking up the physics which these other groups have been pioneering,” said David DiVincenzo, an I.B.M physicist and research manager.

Researchers at Santa Barbara and Yale also said that they expect to make further incremental progress in 2011 and in the next several years. At the most basic level, quantum computers are composed of quantum bits, or qubits, rather than the traditional bits that are the basic unit of digital computers. Classic computers are built with transistors that can be in either an “on” or an “off” state, representing either a 1 or a 0. A qubit, which can be constructed in different ways, can represent 1 and 0 states simultaneously. This quality is called superposition.

The potential power of quantum computing comes from the possibility of performing a mathematical operation on both states simultaneously. In a two-qubit system it would be possible to compute on four values at once, in a three-qubit system on eight at once, in a four-qubit system on 16, and so on. As the number of qubits increases, potential processing power increases exponentially.

There is, of course, a catch. The mere act of measuring or observing a qubit can strip it of its computing potential. So researchers have used quantum entanglement — in which particles are linked so that measuring a property of one instantly reveals information about the other, no matter how far apart the two particles are — to extract information. But creating and maintaining qubits in entangled states has been tremendously challenging.

“We’re at the stage of trying to develop these qubits in a way that would be like the integrated circuit that would allow you to make many of them at once,” said Rob Schoelkopf, a physicist who is leader of the Yale group. “In the next few years you’ll see operations on more qubits, but only a handful.”

The good news, he said, is that while the number of qubits is increasing only slowly, the precision with which the researchers are able to control quantum interactions has increased a thousandfold.

The Santa Barbara researchers said they believe they will essentially double the computational power of their quantum computers next year.

John Martinis, a physicist who is a member of the team, said, “We are currently designing a device with four qubits, and five resonators,” the standard microelectronic components that are used to force quantum entanglement. “If all goes well, we hope to increase this to eight qubits and nine resonators in a year or so.”

Two competing technological approaches are also being pursued. One approach involves building qubits from ions, or charged atomic particles, trapped in electromagnetic fields. Lasers are used to entangle the ions. To date, systems as large as eight qubits have been created using this method, and researchers believe that they have design ideas that will make much larger systems possible. Currently more than 20 university and corporate research laboratories are pursuing this design.

In June, researchers at Toshiba Research Europe and Cambridge University reported in Nature that they had fabricated light-emitting diodes coupled with a custom-formed quantum dot, which functioned as a light source for entangled photons. The researchers are now building more complex systems and say they can see a path to useful quantum computers.

A fourth technology has been developed by D-Wave Systems, a Canadian computer maker. D-Wave has built a system with more than 50 quantum bits, but it has been greeted skeptically by many researchers who believe that it has not proved true entanglement. Nevertheless, Hartmut Neven, an artificial-intelligence researcher at Google, said the company had received a proposal from D-Wave and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop a quantum computing facility for Google next year based on the D-Wave technology.

read more here ...

Source: New York Times, Nov 8, 2010

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Message 27815 - Posted: 9 Nov 2010 | 18:06:53 UTC - in response to Message 27814.
Last modified: 9 Nov 2010 | 18:07:16 UTC

For those wishing to "boinc" quantum computing, please see:
http://aqua.dwavesys.com/
____________
Murphy (AtP)



Profile Byron Leigh Hatch @ team Carl Sagan
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Message 27848 - Posted: 10 Nov 2010 | 17:08:08 UTC

Eurek Alert!

Quantum computers a step closer to reality thanks to new finding

Quantum computers may be much easier to build than previously thought, suggests a new study in Physical Review Letters


by
Laura Gallagher
Research Media Relations Manager
Imperial College London

Quantum computers should be much easier to build than previously thought, because they can still work with a large number of faulty or even missing components, according to a study published today in Physical Review Letters. This surprising discovery brings scientists one step closer to designing and building real-life quantum computing systems – devices that could have enormous potential across a wide range of fields, from drug design, electronics, and even code-breaking.

Scientists have long been fascinated with building computers that work at a quantum level – so small that the parts are made of just single atoms or electrons. Instead of 'bits', the building blocks normally used to store electronic information, quantum systems use quantum bits or 'qubits', made up of an arrangement of entangled atoms.

Materials behave very differently at this tiny scale compared to what we are used to in our everyday lives – quantum particles, for example, can exist in two places at the same time. "Quantum computers can exploit this weirdness to perform powerful calculations, and in theory, they could be designed to break public key encryption or simulate complex systems much faster than conventional computers," said Dr Sean Barrett, the lead author of the study, who is a Royal Society University Research Fellow in the Department of Physics at Imperial College London.

The machines have been notoriously hard to build, however, and were thought to be very fragile to errors. In spite of considerable buzz in the field in the last 20 years, useful quantum computers remain elusive.

Barrett and his colleague Dr. Thomas Stace, from the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, have now found a way to correct for a particular sort of error, in which the qubits are lost from the computer altogether. They used a system of 'error-correcting' code, which involved looking at the context provided by the remaining qubits to decipher the missing information correctly.

"Just as you can often tell what a word says when there are a few missing letters, or you can get the gist of a conversation on a badly-connected phone line, we used this idea in our design for a quantum computer," said Dr Barrett. They discovered that the computers have a much higher threshold for error than previously thought – up to a quarter of the qubits can be lost – but the computer can still be made to work. "It's surprising, because you wouldn't expect that if you lost a quarter of the beads from an abacus that it would still be useful," he added.

The findings indicate that quantum computers may be much easier to build than previously thought, but as the results are still based on theoretical calculations, the next step is to actually demonstrate these ideas in the lab. Scientists will need to devise a way for scaling the computers to a sufficiently large number of qubits to be viable, says Barrett. At the moment the biggest quantum computers scientists have built are limited to just two or three qubits.

"We are still some way off from knowing what the true potential of a quantum computer might be, says Barrett. "At the moment quantum computers are good at particular tasks, but we have no idea what these systems could be used for in the future," he said. "They may not necessarily be better for everything, but we just don't know. They may be better for very specific things that we find impossible now."

read more here ...

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-11/icl-qca110910.php
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-11/icl-qca110910.php

Profile Byron Leigh Hatch @ team Carl Sagan
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Message 29293 - Posted: 14 Dec 2010 | 18:49:10 UTC

IBM to build 3 petaflop supercomputer for Germany

by
Joab Jackson

Germany’s Bavarian Academy of Science has announced that it has contracted IBM to build a “SuperMUC” supercomputer that, when completed in 2012, will be able to execute up to 3 petaflops, potentially making it the world’s most powerful supercomputer ...

read more here ...

http://www.goodgearguide.com.au/article/371191/ibm_build_3_petaflop_supercomputer_germany/
http://www.goodgearguide.com.au/article/371191/ibm_build_3_petaflop_supercomputer_germany/



Chinese supercomputer is world’s fastest at 2.5 petaflops

China set to claim supercomputing crown - October 28, 2010

In a potential blow to US national pride the world’s fastest supercomputer is now Chinese, beating the Americans into second place for the first time since 2004 with a machine which is smaller and more energy efficient than its closest US rival.

In the run up to the release of the official list of the top 500 supercomputers next week the Chinese supercomputer, Tianhe-1A, looks certain to occupy the top spot

...

The system uses 7,168 NVIDIA Tesla M2050 massively parallel graphics processing units (GPUs) and 14,336 multi-core central processing units (CPUs). It would require more than 50,000 CPUs and twice as much floor space to deliver the same performance using CPUs alone. the company says.

Tianhe-1A was designed by the National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) in China. The system is housed at National Supercomputer Center in Tianjin and is already fully operational. It will be operated as an open access system to use for large scale scientific computations ...

read more here ...

http://blogs.nature.com/news/thegreatbeyond/2010/10/china_will_claim_supercomputin.html
http://blogs.nature.com/news/thegreatbeyond/2010/10/china_will_claim_supercomputin.html

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Message 30301 - Posted: 4 Jan 2011 | 14:07:04 UTC

1,000 core CPU!



____________
141941*2^4299438-1 is prime!


Profile Byron Leigh Hatch @ team Carl Sagan
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Message 30304 - Posted: 4 Jan 2011 | 14:56:59 UTC - in response to Message 30301.

1,000 core CPU!



Thank you Scott ... for sharing that link.
Very interesting article ... amazing!

Best Wishes
Byron

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Message 31290 - Posted: 20 Jan 2011 | 20:59:23 UTC

http://news.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/20/stubborn-nano-satellite-finally-pops-out/?hpt=T2

Gotta love the media and NASA. I figure there's a few ham operators on pg as well.
____________
@AggieThePew

Profile Byron Leigh Hatch @ team Carl Sagan
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Message 38848 - Posted: 1 Aug 2011 | 17:00:36 UTC

Hello Prime Gride friends and neighbors

any of these Science and Technology stories catch your eye ?????

Everyone ... please feel free to post a comment in this thread ... or rant and rave ... or what ever :) - nothing is off the topic ... the more the merry ;)

OK ... let's start posting!

Science and Technology in the News for:

Monday August 1, 2011

NEWS AND BLOG HEADLINES


any of these Science and Technology stories catch your eye ?????

Everyone ... please feel to post a comment in this thread ... or rant and rave ... or what ever :) - nothing is off the topic ... the more the merry ;)

OK ... let's start posting!

or happy reading :)

Message boards : General discussion : Science and Technology in the News

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